I hear this question a lot, and I am one who wants the truth no matter what, so took a deep dive in the scriptures...
Here’s what I’ve noted from the book of Exodus where the law was created:
First of all, the Sabbath began at the Feast of Unleavened bread when God first established it in Egypt. At that time it was ONLY commanded to be obeyed during that feast. (Ex 12:1-28) It was created for a memorial of the deliverance from Egypt (v14).
Again, in Deut 5:15 we see that God established the Sabbath day after Egypt. But at that time there was only one annual Sabbath day, at the Feast.
Deu 5:15 And remember that thou wast a servant in the land of Egypt, and that the LORD thy God brought thee out thence through a mighty hand and by a stretched out arm: therefore the LORD thy God commanded thee to keep the sabbath day.
Second, there was no "regular" Sabbath before the commandment in Ex 16 when the Lord gave manna and quail in the wilderness and He began this practice at that time. If you read it, you'll see that the leaders of the people were confused when there was twice as much manna on the sixth day (verses 22 and 27), and Moses then gave them the word of the Lord and established the very first seventh day Sabbath.
Then, when the Lord gave Moses the Law in Ex 24-34, the 10 commandments were very much part of the Law-Giving as a whole. It was part of it. Like in Ex 31 we see the Sabbath being established along with many other laws.
And, in Deut 4:13-14 we see that the ten commandments are, again, a part of all the statutes and judgments, not something separate.
In James chapter 2, James seems to be saying that the 10 Commandments were very much part of the "law"...
James 2:8 If ye fulfil the royal law according to the scripture, Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself, ye do well: 9 But if ye have respect to persons, ye commit sin, and are convinced of the law as transgressors. 10 For whosoever shall keep the whole law, and yet offend in one point, he is guilty of all. 11 For he that said, Do not commit adultery, said also, Do not kill. Now if thou commit no adultery, yet if thou kill, thou art become a transgressor of the law. 12 So speak ye, and so do, as they that shall be judged by the law of liberty.
Paul taught us in his letter to the Galatians that the entirety of the law was a schoolmaster to bring us to Christ!
Gal 3:24 Wherefore the law was our schoolmaster to bring us unto Christ, that we might be justified by faith. 25 But after that faith is come, we are no longer under a schoolmaster.
It seems that most Christians will agree that we're no longer under the law, but under grace and the law of love (most however, without correctly understanding this law), but they want to keep the Ten Commandments as some separate thing that is not part of the "law".
If this is true, why did Paul argue so much against Christians being under the law in his Epistles? And why did Peter and James dispute it in Acts 15, and the the leaders of the Christian church decide against obeying the "law" in Acts 21?
And, if this is true, why do people who want to obey the 10 Commandments not keep the Sabbath? It would be quite contradictory to believe we should obey them but ignore one, wouldn't it?
Please read the books of Galatians and Acts.
Gal 5:4 Christ is become of no effect unto you, whosoever of you are justified by the law; ye are fallen from grace.
Col 2:16 Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days: 17 Which are a shadow of things to come; but the body is of Christ.
Act 21:25 As touching the Gentiles which believe, we have written and concluded that they observe no such thing, save only that they keep themselves from things offered to idols, and from blood, and from strangled, and from fornication.
Those are a couple points made about the law and grace that we should understand. If we wish to be justified by the law, any part of it, then we are FALLEN from grace! Christ is become of no effect unto you! Think about this before you go about following the law!
Some people say that God established the Sabbath as a command in Genesis for all people. I ask; Tell me what was the ONLY law God established after creation? They could do anything they wanted but they could not eat of one tree. That was the only rule. God did not command Adam and Eve to keep the Sabbath, so if this was supposed to be established by God at that time why did He not command it?
Sometimes people will tell me that God created the Sabbath for God.
We see that Jesus said otherwise...
Mark 2:27 And he said unto them, The sabbath was made for man, and not man for the sabbath:
The word of God is clear on this. The Ten Commandments were part of the Law of Moses, and the Sabbath was established for men as part of the law.
As Paul said in Galatians 5, that if we keep one of the laws we are then debtors to keep the whole law. If we keep the Sabbath, we would then need to keep all the law, and we know it is not so.
For more information, see the following pages:
What does being a Christian mean and how should we live? - click here
What is the Law of Love? - click here